Cardiac Examination

Cardiac Examination

It is being done during the physical examination for knowing the sign of cardiovascular pathology.
Cardiac cycle: Serial blood flow also known as serial circulation:
From all body to right atrium to right ventricle to lungs to left atrium to left ventricle
heart sounds during the cycle

Hear Sounds and their duration
Heart Sounds and their duration

Other physiological heart sounds s3 and s4, these can only be heard through phonocardiogram in:
i.Childhood
ii.Pregnant woman

Closure of valves in phases of the cardiac cycle

Closure of valves during each phase of cardiac cycle
Closure of valves during each phase of the cardiac cycle

 Events during cardiac cycle

Phases of cardiac cycle
Phases of the cardiac cycle

PMI: Point of maximal inspection: the site where maximum beat can be heard it is present in 5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line(9cm from mid sternum).
Cardio-Thoracic ratio: it shows the position of the heart and its size in the chest cavity with the help of a chest X-ray of a person.

*Abnormal heart sounds or heart murmurs
it can be due to the
1.Regurgitation
2.Shunt
3.Stenosis
4.Patency

Types of abnormal heart sounds:

It is of three types;
I .systoloic
ii.Diastolic
iii.Continuous
Gradation of heart sounds

Gradation of heart sounds
Gradation of heart sounds

Continuous heart sounds are heard in Patent ductus arteriosis

Septal defects

Types of septal defects
Types of septal defects

*Contraction of ventricles

Ventricular contractions
Ventricular contractions
HYPERTOPHIC VENTRICLES
HYPERTROPHIC VENTRICLE types

Hypertrophy: Increase in size of the heart.
Types: There are two types depending upon the diameter of the ventricular cavity.

Premature heartbeats
It can be in atria or ventricle.
1.Atrial premature contraction
ii.Ventricular premature contraction

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